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考研英语小难点!同位语从句的识别

2017年07月06日来源:跨考教育

众所周知,英语有三大从句,分别是主语从句,定语从句和状语从句。而名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。在主从复合句中,从句可以充当主句的主语、表语、宾语或同位语。由于在多数情况下,主语、表语、宾语或同位语这四种句子成分由名词性词类充当,所以,我们把这些作用相当于名词的从句统称为名词性从句,把充当主语、表语、宾语或同位语的从句分别称为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句或同位语从句。也就是说充当什么成分就叫什么从句。

在考研英语中,同位语从句在句中有两种位置:要么紧挨着所解释的名词,要么跟所解释的名词之间有其它成分。下面跨考教育英语教研室谷存波老师分别举例进行说明。

比如:Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice.这类人持极端看法,认为人与动物在各相关方面都不相同,对待动物无须考虑道德问题。

此句中,view后面有个that引导的同位语从句。从句用来解释view的具体内容。

再如:The debate whether there should be more free sports facilities for the public continued. 关于是否应该有更多的免费的体育设施对公众开放的争论从未停止过。

此句中,debate后面紧接着一个whether引导的同位语从句,解释debate的具体内容。

同位语从句有时跟所解释的名词之间有其它成分。比如:Concerns were raised that witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ensure guilty verdicts. 有人表示担心,证人可能会受到鼓励,为了确保有罪的裁定而在法庭上夸大其辞。

跨考教育谷存波老师认为:学习同位语从句的难点是能够区分开同位语从句和定语从句。先从最常见的定语从句说起:定语是用来修饰、限定名词或代词的品质与特征的。如果是一个句子担任定语,那么这个句子就是定语从句。一个名词(或其它形式)对另一个名词或代词进行修饰,限定或说明,这个名词(或其它形式)就是同位语。在复合句中充当同位语的名词性从句称为同位语从句。两种从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面:

1. 从词类上区别:

同位语从句前面只能是idea,fact,hope,news等抽象名词,而定语从句的先行词可以是名词(多是具体名词)、代词,主句的一部分或是整个主句,如:

The possibility that the majority of the labour force will work at home is often discussed.(同位语从句)

Our team has won the game, which made us very happy. (定语从句)

2. 从性质上区别:

定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴,如:

The news that our team has won the game was true.

(同位语从句,补充说明news到底是一个什么消息。)

The news that he told me yesterday was true.

(定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语。)

3. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别:

有些引导词如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句,如:

That question whether we need it has not been considered.

我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。(同位语从句)

引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略,that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替,如:

The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday.

我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了。(同位语从句。是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略。)

The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups.

我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组。(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略。)

最后来看真题中的一句,来自2004年阅读第四篇:

These leaders are living proof that prevention works and that we can manager the health problems that come naturally with age.

大家来分析下,看看三个that分别引导的是什么从句。分析出来了吗?前面两个that引导的是同位语从句,最后一个that引导的是定语从句,that在定语从句中做主语。